In literature, refers to a story told from the beginning rather than in medias res (from the middle).
In law, refers to something being the case from the start or from the instant of the act, rather than from when the court declared it so.
Said of an argument that seeks to prove a statement's validity by pointing out the absurdity of an opponent's position (cf.
appeal to ridicule) or that an assertion is false because of its absurdity.
This appendix lists direct English translations of Latin phrases.
Some of the phrases are themselves translations of Greek phrases, as Greek rhetoric and literature reached its peak centuries before that of Ancient Rome: This list is a combination of the three divided pages, for users who have no trouble loading large pages and prefer a single page to scroll or search through.
It is not an honorary degree, but a recognition of the formal learning that earned the degree at another college. Typically used in argumentum ad hominem, a logical fallacy consisting of criticizing a person when the subject of debate is the person's ideas or argument, on the mistaken assumption that the validity of an argument is to some degree dependent on the qualities of the proponent.
An argumentum ab inconvenienti is one based on the difficulties involved in pursuing a line of reasoning, and is thus a form of appeal to consequences; it refers to a rule in law that an argument from inconvenience has great weight. Incunabula is commonly used in English to refer to the earliest stage or origin of something, and especially to copies of books that predate the spread of the printing press around AD 1500."At the outset", referring to an inquiry or investigation.
Not to be confused with a reductio ad absurdum, which is usually a valid logical argument.
Literally, "from the everlasting" or "from eternity".
A judicial declaration of the invalidity of a marriage ab initio is a nullity. In other contexts, often refers to beginner or training courses.
Ab initio mundi means "from the beginning of the world". Used in law to describe a decision or action that is detrimental to those it affects and was made based on hatred or anger, rather than on reason.Loosely, "according to what pleases" or "as you wish"; libitum comes from the past participle of libere, "to please".